Short Name: GnJi1a.1040
Period: Early Pleistocene
Culture/Industry: Oldowan Industry Complex
Localization: Baringo District, Rift Valley Province
Collection Date: 1978
Collector: J. W. K. Harris & J. A. J. Gowlett
Material Culture: Lithic
Site Name: Chesowanja
Catalogue: # KNM-3000-3
2.6 to 1.7 million years ago
Lower Pleistocene sites that have yielded in situ Oldowan and Oldowan-like stone artefacts, evidence of fire and a fragmentary ‘robust’ australopithecine cranium. Burnt clay found at one artefact locality dated to >1.42±0.07 Myr is the earliest known evidence of fire associated with a hominid occupation site.
Compared to previous periods, the climate of eastern Africa was generally colder, but more importantly, it was variable. There were significant swings between warm and wet and cold and dry. Similarly, the landscape frequently changed from forested to grassy. Animal life was in great flux with successions of organisms suited to survive in those environments. Hominids and their hominin descendants grew increasingly dependent on tools to survive the changing environments.